American Topical Association

The article below was published in 1971 by a CJRRU member from the UK (hence its original use of Stanley Gibbons catalogue numbers; I have added Scott numbers for our American readers.) Its wealth of technical detail, as well as its entertaining and informative historical anecdotes make it even today an ideal contribution to our web site.


A study of postage stamps


Published in Railway Philately, Volume 5 No. 4, September 1971

(Railway Philately is the journal of the Railway Philatelic Group of England, who may be contacted through their web site)

The 3-cent blue of 1859 (S.G. 201/202; Sc. 114) - March 27,1869

I am indebted to Mr. W. A. Mazurie of Euclid, Ohio who sent the following information to Mr. C. A. Hart who passed it on to me. He writes "The vignette was taken from a drawing of a Baldwin 4-4-0 locomotive circa 1857 by William Croome. The drawing was previously used for the 1 dollar bank note of the Northwestern Bank of Warren Pennsylvania". The reference occurs in Vol. 75 No. 2 of the American Philatelic Society Journal, November 1961.

EDITOR's NOTE - March 30, 2002

Tony added the following when he sent me this article:

There was a man called Keith Kelly who had originals of the vignette and the banknote. When he died they were auctioned and I bid, but got nowhere near them. Before he died he sent me photocopies of his collection. He says the engraving 'The Crossing' was done by James Smillie {James Smillie - 1807-1885 James Smillie, an engraver born in Edinburgh in 1807, emigrated to Canada in 1821 and later came to the US. He became famous with prints made after famous American paintings of landscapes, portraits and towns. In 1851 he became a member of the National Academy of Design in New York. He died in Poughkeepsie in 1885.} in about 1859 or 1860 from an original drawing by William Croome (1790-1860) an illustrator for childrens' books. The attachment (see below) shows 'The Crossing' used on a stock certificate. I picked it up in Leadville, Colorado.


(1) 2-cent red (S.G. 301; Sc. 295) - May 1, 1901

The sequence of events leading to the accurate identification of the locomotive on this stamp is most interesting. The relevant facts seem to be as follows:

In 1932 a revised edition of the book "The U.S. Postage Stamps of the 20th century" by Beverly S. King appeared, and an excerpt concerning the Pan-American issue was reproduced in the American magazine "Stamps" for 24th December 1932. The excerpt included a photograph of a train which was supposed to have been used for the engraving on the 2-cent stamp.

Nearly 35 years later a follow-up article by Otto E. Spokas appeared in "Stamps" for 18th February 1967. Spokas had noticed that the photograph in the King article exhibited certain differences as compared with the stamp. Chief of these was that the photograph showed a 4-4-2 locomotive whereas the stamp clearly shows a 4-4-0. There were other discrepancies too and Spokas produced from his collection a photograph which bore a much closer resemblance to the design on the stamp. The photograph dated from 1891 and showed a train hauled by a 4-4-0, No. 862 of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. However, as Spokas himself observed, even this photo was not identical in all respects to the design on the stamp. He noticed further that the locomotive on the stamp had some features in common with the famous No. 999 of the same railway.

In little over another month the whole matter was cleared up in "Stamps" for 25th March 1967. The editor of "Stamps" had received a letter pointing out that Otto Spokas had overlooked an article (and who can blame him!) by Allan M. Thatcher, published in "Stamps" of 22nd May 1937. Thatcher had located the correct photograph in the collection of a one-time famous railway photographer C. B. Chaney. The Chaney photograph was of locomotive No. 938 hauling the Empire State Express. It is now in the archives of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington.

Information about No. 938 is scant and sometimes contradictory. The Casey Jones Newsletter for February 1963 (Vol 10, No. 1) gives some details about No. 999, implying that they refer equally to No. 938. No. 999, however, was a "one off" job, designed by William Buchanan and built by the N.Y.C. & H.R.R. at their West Albany shops. It had 86" diameter driving wheels, and two outside cylinders measuring 19" x 24" (diam. x stroke). The engine and tender weighed 91.7 tons and were 57' 6" long. The cost was stated to be 13,000 dollars and the horsepower 1000.

No. 938 was a standard locomotive of class 870 built by the Schenectady Locomotive Works from 1891 onwards. The dimensions were similar to those of No. 999 with the notable exception that the drivers were only of 78" diameter. The engines alone weighed 53.6 tons and were 57' 1-3/4" long with tender. (Data quoted from "American Locomotives" by John H. White, Jr., published by Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore).

I am indebted to Mr. C. P. Wales of Alexandria, Virginia for confirming that No. 938 is indeed one of the 870 class and the dimensions quoted are substantially correct. Mr. Wales quotes the length with tender as 57' 6" (the same as for No. 999) and the date of building as 1898. The boiler pressure is thought to have been about 180 lbs./sq. in.

(2) 4 cent brown (S.G. 302; Sc. 296) - May 1, 1901

This stamp shows an early electric motor car used in Washington, DC by the Baltimore and Ohio Railway for conveying passengers from trains to any part of the city.

(3) 5 cent ultramarine (S.G. 303; Sc. 297) - May 1, 1901

The bridge represented on this stamp was the second bridge on the site at present occupied by the Rainbow Bridge. It is the nearest bridge to the Niagara Falls. The first bridge was known as the Clifton Suspension Bridge and was built in 1869 by Samuel Keefer. It had a span of 1266 feet, a record at that time. It was blown down by a gale in 1889 and replaced by the Falls View or Honeymoon bridge (shown on the stamp) in 1898. This in turn was destroyed by an iceflow on 27th January 1938 and the present Rainbow Bridge was built in 1941.

An account of the iceflow disaster as well as some details of the bridge itself is given in the Meccano Magazine for April 1938. The bridge was constructed in 1898 at a cost of £400,000. It was an arch structure with a main span of 840 ft. and two approach spans, one of 190 ft. on the United States side, and one of 210 ft. on the Canadian side. The deck was 46 ft. wide and carried two tramway tracks, two carriageways and two footpaths. Two trams are visible on the stamp.

The John Ericsson Stamp (S.G. 629; Sc. 628) - May 29, 1926

I am again indebted to the Mecanno Magazine, this time for March 1938, for some facts about John Ericsson and his locomotive the "Novelty."

Ericsson does not, of course, owe his appearance on an American stamp to the fact that he designed a locomotive that ran in England but rather to his steel clad battleship the "Monitor" which won a decisive battle against the Confederate ship the "Merimac."

He was born in Sweden in 1803 and although he received some rudimentary training in engineering in the mines where his father worked, he was largely self taught. He happened to be working in England when George Stephenson was building his "Rocket" for the forthcoming Rainhill trials. Ericsson did not hear about the trials until seven weeks before the event when he immediately set to work to design and construct the "Novelty". In appearance it resembled a fire engine he had built earlier. It weighed only 3 tons, 1 cwt against the 4 tons, 5 cwt of the "Rocket" and had four wheels of 4' 2" diameter. The two vertical cylinders had a 6" diameter and 12" stroke.

At the trials the "Novelty" reached a speed of 30 m.p.h. without a load, making 20 journeys along the 2 mile trial stretch. With a load the engine performed well at first but on the third trip suffered a breakdown because of a burst pipe. The "Novelty" was withdrawn but not before it had shown itself a serious rival of the "Rocket".

The Golden Spike Stamp (S.G. 919; Sc. 922) - May 10, 1944

The United States has not issued a great many stamps specifically connected with railways, but looking through them one is left with the impression that the subjects were chosen with great care and only those events were commemorated which were of great national significance.

The scene portrayed here is no exception. It symbolizes an epic struggle of man against a hostile environment, a story oft repeated in the early days of railway building. It is based on a mural by John Hafen in the Union Pacific Terminal, Salt Lake City. The mural was retouched by John McQuarrie, a Utah landscape artist, in 1944. It is well known that the flag and the smoke blow in opposite directions.

As long ago as the 1830s it was apparent that a railway linking East and West would be of great benefit to the nation both politically and economically, but it was not until 1861 that a decisive step was taken.

Politically the railway was seen as potentially making an effective contribution to the unity of the young nation while economically it was expected to provide a link in the trade route between Europe and the Orient.

America in the pre-Civil War period was racked by increasing animosity between North and South and the choice of route was the subject of bitter political controversy. While the politicians argued about a route and in particular its eastern terminus, a California railway engineer named Theodore Judah surveyed a route and found backing for his scheme in Sacramento where on 28th June 1861 a group of merchants incorporated the Central Pacific Railroad of California.

The Central Pacific broke ground at Sacramento on 8th January 1863 but were almost immediately confronted with the fantastically difficult task of crossing the Sierra Nevada range, an undertaking of almost unprecedented magnitude in those days. Rugged country and the deep winter snowfall combined to hinder progress so that by mid 1868 the C.P. were still less than 200 miles from Sacramento.

Nearly a year later the government sponsored Union Pacific Railroad was launched at Omaha, Nebraska and proceeded westward. At first the terrain presented no difficulties but progress was hindered by hostile Indians who feared (with some justification) that the railway would threaten their way of life. Nevertheless, by mid 1868 the railway had completed 700 miles of track and was facing the Black Hills of Wyoming.

By this time the Great Railroad Race was well and truly in progress. Government subsidies awarded for each mile of track graded and for each mile laid made speed of construction of prime concern to each company, not to mention the eventual increased business. By the time representatives of the two companies met in Washington in April 1869 to choose the final meeting point, the graders of the two companies had already passed each other and had continued grading parallel tracks in opposite directions.

Ogden, Utah was chosen as the junction point for the two companies. The actual joining of the rails would be at Promontory Point, west of Ogden, and C.P. would then buy line between Promontory and Ogden.

Ceremonies began at noon on 10th May 1869 when Central Pacific's 'Jupiter' and Union Pacific's No. 119 steamed slowly up to the gap in the tracks. The final rails were put in place by labourers from both railway companies.

A polished laurel sleeper with holes ready drilled was laid into place ready to receive four spikes of precious metal from dignitaries of the two companies. For the U.P. their Vice-President Dr. Thomas Durant received two golden spikes from California and dropped them into the holes. Leland Stanford, the President of the C.P. then did likewise with a silver spike from Nevada and a spike of an alloy of iron, gold and silver from Arizona.

The actual last spike was of ordinary iron driven by an ordinary sledge hammer into an ordinary sleeper. The hammer was wired and connected to the U.P. telegraph waiting to signal the word "DONE" to the major U.S. cities. The scheme misfired as neither Durant nor Stanford was able to hit the spike. Nevertheless the telegraphist signalled the magic word and celebrations were started in every major city in the U.S.

A certain amount of speculation has taken place as to what prompted the particular choice of locomotives. The most likely explanation seems to be the prosaic one that they were the most conveniently situated at the time.

The Winter 1969 edition of the Utah Historical Quarterly quotes some details of the two locomotives. 'Jupiter' was No. 60 of the Central Pacific Railroad. It was one of a group of four 4-4-0s built by the Schenectady Locomotive Works in September 1868. It had 60' diameter driving wheels, cylinders of 16" bore and 24" stroke, and it weighed 28.8 tons without tender. It was a wood burner fitted with a huge spark arresting chimney.

The four locomotives left the factory together, crated in parts for their journey round Cape Horn to California. In New York the 'Jupiter' became separated from the rest and arrived in San Francisco at the end of February 1869 after a voyage of 140 days. It was then transferred to another boat for the final lap of the Journey to Sacramento where it was assembled in the C.P. roundhouse.

Union Pacific No. 119 emerged from the Rogers Locomotive Works, Patterson, New Jersey on 19th November, 1868. It was transported west by rail as dead freight with a mechanic in the cab to lubricate the bearings frequently. This it arrived in Council Bluffs, Iowa and was ferried across the river to Omaha. Unlike 'Jupiter', No. 119 was a coal burner fitted with 'Hudson's patent straight stack'. Its cylinders were of the same dimensions as those of the "Jupiter" but the drivers were smaller at 54" diameter. It weighed 35.4 tons.

Sentiment played little part in the affairs of early American railways and the two locomotives were scrapped within two years of each other at the turn of the Century.

Even the railway no longer passes Promontory Point. In 1903 the Southern Pacific which had absorbed the Central Pacific began the Lucin Cutoff across the Great Salt Lake to shorten the line. Occasional traffic used the Promontory route, however, until 1942 when on 8th September about 200 people gathered to witness the "undriving of the Golden Spike". The rails were then removed and contributed to the war effort.

Thus it was with an air of unreality that a group of people gathered at the same time and place on 10th May 1969 to witness a re-enactment of the ceremony with specially constructed replicas of the two locomotives on a specially laid section of track in a remote part of Utah. In the background was the Visitor Centre of the Golden Spike National Historic Site authorized by Congress in July 1968 as a permanent memorial of an important part of the nation's heritage. The Centenary was commemorated philatelically not by the issue of a stamp but by the use of a special machine cancellation used at Brigham City, the centre for the Centennial celebrations.

The USA-Canada Friendship Centenary (S.G. 958; Sc. 961) - August 2, 1948

The design for this stamp which shows the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge was based on a famous print by H. Peters dated 1861. This bridge was the third to be built on the site and the issue date of the stamp seems to have no particular significance with regard to it but rather to the first bridge of the three. For this reason a brief chronology of the Niagara bridges will be given.

The First Suspension Bridge
In 1847 four men submitted tenders for the construction of a combined road and rail bridge to span the Niagara River at a point about 1-1/2 miles below the falls. The four men were Edward Serrell, John Roebling, Samuel Keefer and Charles Ellet. The contract was awarded to Ellet who promoted a kite flying contest offering a prize to the first boy who could fly a kite to the opposite bank. He used the string to draw thicker and thicker cords across until finally he had a wire rope anchored at each side. In this way Ellet built a light suspension bridge across which he rode his horse in July 1848.

The indefatigable Casey Jones Rail Road Unit gives 29th July 1848 as the date on which the last plank was laid and this date is confirmed by S. S. Worthen of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association who also states that a certain Homan Walsh crossed by horse on 13th March 1848 thus becoming the first man to cross the gorge other than by swimming or rowing a boat. According to the cachet on a first day cover in my possession, the bridge was opened on 1st August 1848 and the stamp commemorating the centenary was issued on 2nd August 1948 (a Monday). Thus it could be argued that the stamp shows the wrong bridge.

Instead of completing the bridge according to the terms of his contract, Ellet spent his time collecting tolls from travellers who crossed his bridge by means of a light iron carriage suspended on the wires. This lasted for about a year before the indignant bridge company terminated his contract. Ellet, however, was 5000 dollars to the good.

The Second Suspension Bridge
This bridge, which is of little importance to our discussion, was built by adding additional wires to Ellet's bridge to make it strong enough to support a roadway.

The Third Suspension Bridge
Ellet's place was taken by Roebling, who in 1850 signed a contract to construct a suspension bridge capable of supporting a railway. The completed bridge was opened on 8th March 1855 and the light engine 'Elk' of the Great Western Railway crossed it the following day. This date is also confirmed by Casey Jones and Worthen, although the former source refers to a "train." Worthen thinks this is unlikely as the bridge had yet to be tested. The bridge was opened for regular traffic on 18th March 1855.

It is of course Roebling's bridge that is shown on the stamp. It had a span of 821 ft. and the railway track was 245 ft. above the water surface. It was supported by four cables which rested on rollers on the tops of masonry towers at each end of the central span, the ends of the cables being carried to and anchored in the solid rock.

In 1885 it was discovered that the rollers on the towers over which the cables passed had rusted and no longer rotated. The resultant forces, no longer vertical, had damaged the structure of the towers which were consequently replaced by iron towers.

The bridge lasted until 1897 when it was replaced by an arch bridge similar in appearance to the one on the 5 cent Pan-American stamp.

As has been hinted above, the bridge was used by the Great Western Railway of Canada which at that time was broad-gauge (5 ft. 6 ins.) It had but a single track and as there were no broad gauge storage sidings on the United States side it was necessary for trains to return to the Canadian side immediately after crossing.

The Casey Jones Stamp (S.G. 967; Sc. 993) - April 29, 1950

The story of the accident immortalized by ballad is given in James Watson's "Stamps and Railways". A version of the ballad is given in "Stamp Curiosities" by R. J. Sutton. Not surprisingly, there are several references to the event in the Casey Jones Rail Road Unit News Letter and its successor "The Dispatcher".

Missing from all these references, however, is information about the locomotive which Casey was driving at the time of his death and which is reproduced on the stamp. This data has been kindly supplied to me by Dexter C. Wright of the Casey Jones Rail Road Unit who quotes from the Model Railroader's Cyclopedia of Steam Locomotives, Volume 1.

No. 382 of the Illinois Central Railroad was one of a group of 4-6-0s with Belpaire fireboxes built by both Rogers and the Illinois Central for five years from 1896.

According to Casey's fireman, Sim Webb, the engine could pull the 'Cannonball Express' between Memphis, Tennessee and Canton, Mississippi at about 72 m.p.h. and averaged 65 m.p.h. In April 1900 the Cannonball hauled by No. 382 with Casey driving ran into the last three trucks of a goods train that had run into a passing loop but hadn't cleared the main line. The fireman jumped clear but Casey stayed in the engine with his hand on the brake and the whistle and was killed. The crash was similar to others of the time but was made famous by the song of Wallace Saunders, a labourer in the Canton roundhouse.

The engines (when retired in the thirties) weighed 70.6 tons and were 58' 3" long with tender. The driving wheels were 69" in diameter and the two outside cylinders had a 19-1/2" bore and 26" stroke. The boiler pressure was 180 lbs./sq. in. giving a tractive effort of 21,922 lbs. at 85% boiler pressure.

Casey's engine was built in 1898 and rebuilt after the accident. It was an unlucky engine because three more men were killed in subsequent crashes in which it was involved.

The diesel-electric locomotive which appears on the right hand side of the stamp is one of a class of six locomotives built specially for the "Rocket" trains of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, and numbered 601-606. The "Rocket" trains consisted of three or four stainless steel coaches hauled by a single locomotive, and operated on fast interurban services at average speeds of up to 60 m.p.h.

The locomotives were built by the Electromotive Corporation (now the Electromotive Division of the General Motors Corporation) in 1937 and scrapped in 1956. The wheel arrangement was Bo-Bo and the wheel diameter 36". The locomotives were powered by a 1200 h.p. V-16 two-stroke Winton diesel engine. They weighed 100 tons and were 59 ft. long. The continuous tractive effort at 10 m.p.h. was 31,000 lbs.

For more detailed information the reader is referred to the article "Main-Line Locomotives in America" which appeared in the Railway Gazette for 1st October, 1937.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stamp (S.G. 1003; Sc. 1006) - February 28, 1952

Peter Cooper's 'Tom Thumb' consisted of a small donkey engine mounted on a truck and driving one of the axles through gear wheels. A belt driven fan improved the draft. The boiler flues were improvised from old musket barrels. It had 30" diameter wheels and two cylinders of about 3-1/4 to 3-1/2" x 14-1/4 to 14-1/2" (diameter x stroke) with 90 lbs./sq. in. steam preasure.

In 1926 a replica with 5" x 27" cylinders was built by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad for the Philadelphia Sesquicentenial International Exposition. It is now at the Baltimore and Ohio Transport Museum, Baltimore.

'Tom Thumb' once engaged in a race with a horse-drawn car in the summmer of 1830 on parallel tracks between Mount Clare Station, Baltimore and Ellicotts Mills, 13 miles away. It covered the journey there in just over an hour and returned in 57 minutes. It would have done better but for the fact that the belt driving the blower slipped and the race was won by the horse.

The diesel-electric locomotive is two units of a four unit class D.P.5, B-B passenger locomotive. 3 x four-unit and 1 x two-unit locomotives were built for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad by General Motors (E.M.D.) in 1947. Two units weigh 220 tons in working order and have 40" diameter wheels. A two-unit locomotive is rated at 3,000 hp, has a maximum starting tractive effort of 123,000 lbs. and a continuous tractive effort of 90,000 lbs.

The Seattle World Fair stamp (S.G. 1195; Sc. 1196) - April 25, 1962

This stamp shows the 'Space Needle' and the Alweg monorail which carried 10,000 passengers an hour from Seattle city centre over the 1-1/2 mile route to the fair grounds. The system consists of a double track with two trains of four cars each to operate in shuttle service on separate tracks.

The rubber-tyred four-car articulated trains are about 120 ft. long and 10 ft. wide. Each train consists of a pair of two-car units joined by a short type rod coupling. The cars are connected with each other by sliding doors and rubber skin gangway diaphragms. The four cars have a total of 124 seats and a maximum capacity per train of 450 including 326 standing passengers. The total running time for the the journey is 95 seconds.

The trains are powered by two sets of General Electric 100 hp motors in each car. The supporting structure and mechanical components are American made. The cars were made in West Germany by Linke-Hoffman-Busch.

The 1970 Christmas stamp (S.G. 1383; Sc. 1415) - November 5, 1970

Volume 17, No. 4 of the Dispatcher (Casey Jones Rail Road Unit, American Topical Association) gives the following information regarding the design of this stamp. The stamp was painted and designed by Stevan Dohanos of the Citizen's Stamp Advisory Committee. It shows a tin and cast iron locomotive which was adapted from artwork by Charles Hemming in the "Index of American Design", a collection at the National Gallery of Art.

The Eaton's Letter Papers Label

Several copies of this label have been circulating lately and it may be worthwhile concluding with a note about the locomotive shown thereon.

As stated on the label the train is the "Broadway Limited" hauled by a streamlined version of Pennsylvania's famous K4s class. Originally brought out in 1914, the class ran 425 locomotives by the time production ceased in 1927. They were built by Baldwin's and the Pennsylvania Company's works at Altoona, Pa. (of Horseshoe Curve fame). They weighed 138 tons.

In 1936, after extensive wind tunnel testing on clay models, a number of these locomotives were streamlined at Altoona. The streamlining increased the weight to 150 tons but reduced the wind resistance by over one third at 60 m.p.h.

The principle dimensions are: wheel arrangement 4-6-2, two outside cylinders 27" (diameter) x 28" (stroke), diameter of driving wheels 6' 8", boiler pressure 205 lbs./sq. in., length over buffers of engine and tender 80' 5-1/2" (in original form), 95' 0" (streamlined). The increased length was because the streamlined version was fitted with an 18,000 (U.S.) gallon tender in place of the 14,000 gallon tender originally fitted.

Author's Note:

In Railway Philately Volume 6 No.1 (December 1971) the following correction appeared:

"Without disrespect to my good friend Tony Goodbody, I would correct an error in his article on the USA (September Journal). The 'Eaton's Fine Letter Papers' label does not show the PRR streamlined K4s No.3768, but the lone prototype S-1 class 6-4-4-6- Duplex No.6100.

The duplex arrangement consisted of two independent sets of cylinders, wheels and motion in one rigid frame, the purpose being to lessen the weight of the reciprocating masses (and therefore the hammer blow on the track) as compared with an 8-coupled locomotive. Like 3768, No.6100 was styled by the industrial designer Raymond Loewy, and was displayed at the New York World's Fair in 1939-40. It was in action a stationary roller plant with "American Railroads" blazoned along the 16-wheel, 2,430 gallon tender.

In line service, however, it was something of a white elephant, being too cumbersome for the duties allotted to it, and was cut up in 1949. The duplex concept had meanwhile been developed into the T-1 4-4-4-4. S-1 had cylinders 22" x 26" (four), driving wheels 7 ft. in diameter and weighted 27.5 long tons." (a mistake I think: see below).


Andy Hart was obviously correct.
Then I have added in M/S : 'Boiler pressure 300p.s.i., Length = 140 ft. 2.5 ins., Weight 271.5 tons, Maximum speed 100 mph, Built in Juniata Shops, Altoona.'


"American Locomotives" by John H. White, Jr., Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
"The Last Spike is Driven" Utah Historical Quarterly, Winter 1969. Vol. 37, No. 1.
"The Railways of America" by various writers, with an introduction by Thomas M. Cooley, John Murray, London, 1890.
"A Span of Bridges" by H. J. Hopkins, David and Charles. 1970.
"The First Quarter Century of Steam Locomotives in North America" by S. H. Oliver. U.S. National Museum Bulletin, No. 210.
The Meccano Magazine, March, 1939 (John Ericsson).
The Meccano Magazine, April, 1938 (Destruction of Niagara Bridge).
Casey Jones Rail Road Unit of the American Topical Association News Letter. Vol. 6, No. 1 (February, 1959) ("Mrs. Casey Jones").
The Dispatcher. Vol. 9, No. 4 (November, 1962) (Alweg Monorail).
The Dispatcher. Vol. 10. No. 1 (February, 1963) (New York Central on Stamps).
The Dispatcher. Vol 14, Nos. 2 and 3 (May/ August, 1967) (Niagara Bridge).
The Dispatcher, Vo. 17, No. 3 (August, 1970) (Casey Jones).
Canadian Rail, No. 225, October 1970 (Across Niagara's Gorge, by S. S. Worthen).


I am very much indebted to {the late} Howard J. Burkhalter and Dexter C. Wright of the American Topical Association for searching out elusive information about American locomotives, and to Sanborn S. Worthen of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association for information on the bridges across the Niagara Gorge.

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